Mitral prolapse occurs when, at closure, the mitral valve leaflets collide with one another. A bulge forms towards the left atrium.
CHRONIC MITRAL INSUFFICIENCY
When the mitral valve flowsor, in other words, has lost its seal and allows the blood of the ventricle to return to the left atrium, we have what is called mitral insufficiency. This situation can be acute (sudden) or chronic (progressive).
Aortic valve sclerosis means that this valve has lost its flexibility without necessarily having a reduced opening. It has long been believed that sclerosis, or the loss of flexibility - or a calcification - of the aortic valve, was solely the result of mechanical stress imposed by each ventricular contraction.
ACUTE MITRAL FAILURE
Acute mitral insufficiency is the result of a sudden break in the mitral apparatus, whether it is the rupture of a muscular pillar, the rupture of a mitral cord, or the rupture or breakage of a mitral leaflet.