INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF CARDIOLOGY
Retrospectives of the many developments of cardiology on my years of practice.
Episode 1- Dr LUDWIG REHN
Dr Ludwid Rehn is consider by some as the father of cardiac surgery.
Episode 2- Dr ELLIOT CUTLER
His plan was to access the mitral valve through a small incision at the bottom of the left atrium and then create an incision in one of the diseased leaflets of the mitral valve.
Episode 3- Dr DWIGTH KARKEN
On June 6, 1944 marked history as “D-Day”, but also because it is the day Harken successfully removed a metallic fragment from a right ventricle.
Episode 4- Dr CHARLES P. BAILEY
Considered a pioneer of heart surgery by some and father of open-heart surgery by others, Dr Bailey had a fulfilled career.
Episode 5- Dr HORACE SMITHY
This young surgeon followed the footsteps of doctors Harken and Bailey when he successfully completed the mitral valve operation as described by his mentors.
Episode 6- Dr WILLIAM MUSTARD
Dr. Mustard received his medical diploma for the University of Toronto in 1937.His medical profession began as a surgeon at the Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children in 1947. He was then known as an innovative surgeon.
Episode 7- Dr WILFRED BIGELOW
Dr Bigelow affirmed that the cold reduces drastically the metabolism of these animals and the oxygen needed and consumed by the vital organs is minimal during this period.
Episode 8- Dr F. JOHN LEWIS
Doctor F. John Lewis is the first surgeon to successfully complete an open-heart surgery by closing an atrial septal defect in a young 5-year old patient, Jacqueline Jones.
Episode 9- Dr WALT LILLEHEI
Stopping hypothermic circulation leaves the surgeons only a few minutes to perform the operation. This short time, however, does not allow for more complex surgeries. Dr. Lillehei will form a group to try to solve this problem.
Episode 9-Dr John "Jack" Heysham Gibbon
After the death of a patient, Dr Gibbon had an idea that made heart surgery what it is today
Episode 12-THE BIRTH OF CARDIAQUE CATHETERIZATION
Cardiac catheterization is an examination that the doctor prescribes to verify the work done by the heart and to measure different pressures in the heart and lungs. A short stay at the hospital is expected for this examination.
Episode 14-THE INVENTION OF THE PACEMAKER (CARIOSTIMULATOR)
During the era where developments in cardiac surgeries in children with congenital abnormalities, such as a hole between the two ventricles, sudden death by blockage in electrical conduction in the heart is one of the causes of catastrophic deaths.
Episode 13-FIRST CORONAROGRAPHY
The pressure inside the catheter generated by the injector gave it a new orientation and injected the dye directly into the right coronary. Both doctors were convinced that death was imminent. They expected to see this 47-year-old patient die from ventricular fibrillation.
Treating heart failures caused big challenges before the cardiac surgery era. At that time, the therapeutic arsenal was limited and counted on relieving pulmonary congestion using diuretics and removal of blood.
Episode 11- ELECTRIFYING PROGRESS
The most terrifying of operative complications is ventricular fibrillation. It is a fatal arrhythmia. The ventricles act like Jell-o, but do not contract any longer. Blood circulation is now impossible. This electric chaos leads to death within a few seconds.
Episode 16- CREATION OF THE CORONARY UNITS
There is no doubt that coronary units have reduced mortality rates since the mid-1960s from 30% to 15%. Their creation on the other hand was not easy!
Episode17: First bypass surgery
The adventure of surgical treatment of these cholesterol plaques in the coronary arteries is incredible. Many surgeons have tried experiments to arrive at the bypass surgery that we know today.
Episoe 18: FIRST BALOON CATHETER CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY
For several years, in his laboratory with the help of friends and his wife, he tried to develop his idea of crushing a cholesterol plaque in a coronary artery using a balloon.
Episode 19- Formation and development of atherosclerotic plaque
Dr. Ross focused mainly on wound-healing mechanisms. His studies made him wonder: could the wound-healing process give rise to disease, given particular circumstances? As if yin was the healing process and yang its harmful opponent
Episode 20- Discovery of statines
This chapter highlights Akira Endo's determination to fight coronary heart disease. The medical community was aware that cholesterol was at the origin of this atheromatous plaque and that, despite the 2 treatments available at the time, no one knew what the future might bring. The first procedure meant taking a vein from another body part and bridging it over the obstructed area; the alternative was crushing the plaque with a tiny balloon. A historic advance was about to arise!